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Rolling robots[ edit ] Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya For simplicity, most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of continuous tracks. Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels.
These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts, as well as allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four-wheeled robot would not be able to. Two-wheeled balancing robots[ edit ] În ce limbaje de programare sunt folosiți roboți comerciali scrise robots generally use a gyroscope to detect how much a robot is falling and then drive the wheels proportionally in the same direction, to counterbalance the fall at hundreds of times per second, based on the dynamics of an inverted pendulum.
Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed recently, such as Carnegie Mellon University 's " Ballbot " that is the approximate height and width of a person, and Tohoku Gakuin University 's "BallIP".
Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels, therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots, where the robot must drive on very rough terrain.
However, they are difficult to use indoors such as on carpets and smooth floors. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs, however, none have yet been made which are as robust as a human.
Typically, robots on two legs can walk well on flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs. None can walk over rocky, uneven terrain.
The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces the combination of Earth 's gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walkingexactly opposed by the floor reaction force the force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot.
In this way, the two forces cancel out, leaving no moment force causing the robot to rotate and fall over. However, it still requires a smooth surface to walk on.
Initially, a robot with only one leg, and a very small foot could stay upright simply by hopping. The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. As the robot falls to one side, it would jump slightly in that direction, in order to catch itself. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing somersaults. Main article: Passive dynamics Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency.
It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a gentle slope, using only gravity to propel themselves. Using this technique, a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill.
The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey, including takeoff, normal flight, and even landing. They can be smaller and lighter without în ce limbaje de programare sunt folosiți roboți comerciali scrise human pilot on board, and fly into dangerous territory for military surveillance missions.
Some can even fire on targets under command. UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically, without the need for a command from a human.
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Other flying robots include cruise missilesthe Entomopter, and the Epson micro helicopter robot. Robots such as the Air Penguin, Air Ray, and Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies, propelled by paddles, and guided by sonar. Snaking[ edit ] Two robot snakes.
Left one has 64 motors with 2 degrees of freedom per segmentthe right one Several snake robots have been successfully developed.
Mimicking the way real snakes move, these robots can navigate very confined spaces, meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings. It has four legs, with unpowered wheels, which can either step or roll. One approach mimics the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions; adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. An example of this is Capuchin,  built by Dr. Ruixiang Zhang at Stanford University, California.
Another approach uses the specialized toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoeswhich can run on smooth surfaces such as vertical glass.
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Examples of this approach include Wallbot  and Stickybot. According to Dr. Yeung, the gecko robot could rapidly climb up and down a variety of building walls, navigate through ground and wall fissures, and walk upside-down on the ceiling. It was also able to adapt to the surfaces of smooth glass, rough, sticky or dusty walls as well as various types of metallic materials.
It could also identify and circumvent obstacles automatically.
Its flexibility and speed were comparable to a natural gecko. A third approach is to mimic the motion of a snake climbing a pole. Therefore, many researchers studying underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion. Festo have also built the Aqua Ray and Aqua Jelly, which emulate the locomotion of manta ray, and jellyfish, respectively.